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Ibsaa Guutama:- Baddallee Abbaa Waggaa: Seenaa Irratt Qabattee Gabaabduu | A Short Note on History
Posted: Onkoloolessa/October 15, 2014 · Finfinne Tribune | Gadaa.com |
Baddallee Abbaa Waggaa: A Short Note on History
By Ibsaa Guutama* | October 2014
Oromo expedition of the 16th century settled between Gibe and Baaroo Rivers, and started to form small Odaas and administrations with diversion from the Gadaa system. Especially those that remained on this side of Dhiddheessaa, Jimma, Gomma, Limmu and Gumaa adopted a system centered on kingship. Geeraa might have joined them later. They also accepted a religion different from the traditional. Those were called “Afran Naggaadotaa” (the four Merchants).
Baddallee Abbaa Waggaa: Seenaa Irratt Qabattee Gabaabduu
Ibsaa Guutama irraa* | Onkoloolessa 2014
Duulli Oromoo jaarraa 16faa keessa Laga Gibee fi Baaroo gidduu qubate Odaa xixinnoo fi bulcha sirna Gadaa irraa maqe dhaabbachuutti ka’e. Keessaammo kanneen dhiddheessa gamanatt hafan sirna mooti irratt hundaawe ijaarratan. Dhugeeffannoos kan dudhaan adda tahe guddifatan. Jimma, Gomma, Limmuu fi Gumaan hidhata walgargaarsaa tokko ummatanii turan. Jarri kun “Afran Naggaadotaa” jedhamu turan.
Those to their west: Gabbaa, Haannaa, Leeqaa and Noolee did not totally give up the traditional system like them. They were known as “Afran Oromootaa” (the four Oromo). Buunnoo was found among them. Both groups at first conducted many wars to put the region under one rule by force, but when they came to their senses and tried to peacefully work towards unity; the Habashaa force led by Raas Tasammaa Naadoo was able to divide, diminish and put them under his control.
The capital town of Buunnoo is called Baddallee. In the past, the province was referred to as Buunnoo Baddallee. It does not seem that known study had ever been conducted concerning the history, social and economic aspects of this town. Its school had produced many intellectuals since its founding in 1943. But the lack of information about Baddallee makes it seem as if no learned people had come out of it. But as if Baddallee was created after occupation of Oromiyaa and the beer factory inaugurated by the Darg, only about ideas concerning them alone is expressed on the Internet. Its history seems to start from there. Even then, we are not told how and how many benefited from them and what fringe benefit the surrounding got, etc.? Those who muffle the history of Baddallee have reasons to do so, but did all her intellectuals also join those? What is expected of them was presenting politically unbiased facts. From whichever nationality they may be, they will not abstain bragging of being “Ijoollee Baddallee” (Offspring of Baddallee).
For this reason, this article is to encourage those who came out of that town to leave in depth study for researchers and throw whatever information they have grown with hearing and seeing for it can serve as remembrance for those past, and informative for the living. The writer wants to mention few points he heard and saw as a passerby from people talking. This is with the hope that researchers and those who know more will come out and introduce us to this historic town. He had previously mentioned a bit in his book “Prison of Conscience.” A passerby has this much what about those born there?
When this writer passed by the town in 1962/63, it was referred to as “Baddallee Abbaa Waggaa” by the populace. The Birth name of Abbaa Waggaa was said to be Firrisaa. Waggaa was his eldest son. His descendants named Birqee Waggaa and Galaayee Mangistuu lived by brewing kaatikaalaa then. The later was baalabbaat (chief) for namesake. We may not know the exact date of Baddallee’s foundation, but roughly estimating, it will not be less than a century and half. Baddallee is situated at the crossroads from Aggaaroo, Goree and Arjoo. Earlier, all these roads were dry-weather roads. Now they are all-weather roads. There was transport by air between Goree, Jimmaa and Finfinnee. There was also ground telephone service, though poor. Postal service started later. Most residents of the town were outsiders; majority of which were Guraagee who lived on business and Amaaraa living mostly as government employees. There were few urbanized Oromo. All inhabitants of the countryside were almost all native Oromo. Jobs that can employ learned persons were the government administration, a school, human and animal health centers and Air Lines office.
During the year this writer passed by, Baddallee had an open market on Saturdays at the town center and another small one on the old Jimmaa road on Thursdays. Selling and buying was conducted in Afaan Oromo. Produce of the surrounding, such as different grains, greens, banana, lime, yam, wild plum, ancootee potato, goosuu, qinxisa, sugarcane, butter, eggs, chicken, sheep and other slaughter animals, and ritual materials, were seen in the market. Xaafii was two fifty Birr per farasulla(17 kg.); bartering was used for some items. Young lamb was three Birr, and its skin three as well. They started coffee plantation recently. Twenty limes were five cents. Everything was in plenty. There were many daadhiivendors. Among cafes in town, only that of Mahaarii had beds for guest visitors. Cars in the town were his and the governors alone. There was only Baqqalaa Walda Sanbat’s pharmacy. People use for transport human and hoofed animals’ service.
Before the arrival of the Italian invaders, the people of the area were organized under the leadership of Firrisaa to see off the old colonizer and receive a new one. They were sabotaged before making their decision whether to fight the new one, or submit. The year was when a Habashaaprince Raas Immiruu retreated to Goree to represent the Emperor after the defeat at the Shiree front. But when he realized that conditions were not favorable, he tried to leave the country through Sayyoo, but was stopped by Odaa Jootee at Buree. When he tried through Gimbii, he was also stopped by the Western Oromo Confederation at Guyii. Though he opened war, he was defeated and forced to run for his life towards Gojeb (Kafaa). His army caused great devastation on the Oromo wherever it reached, plundering, killing and raping women. Because of that, it was not easy for him to reach Gojeb. With him were the Black Lions trained at the Holota war academy.
Habashaa warlord Axinaaf Saggad, who led Gumaa militia to the Baalee front, tried to retreat to Gumaa after the defeat at that front. But there too, he did not find friends, but foes. Therefore, he had to run and join Immiru’s force when he was stopped at Baddallee by the Oromo force led by Firrisaa. Firrisaa hosted him and his militia lavishly, but advised them to go back in peace. Axinaaf agreed and threw a farewell party, and invited Firrisaa and all Oromo dignitaries. The entrance of the tent lets only one person at a time. The ones at the back did not see when they disarmed the ones in the front. Soon, that huge tent was full to the brim with Oromo nationals surrounded by bloodthirsty butchers.
Axinaaf Saggad was determined not to leave any Oromo leader behind him. After all were in, he ordered his militias to murder them and immediately left in a hurry before information reaches the outskirt, and joined Immiruu’s force. With that, the people were denied guidance and their children orphaned overnight. Both gave their hands to an Italian regiment at Gojab (Kafaa). But after reaching Finfinnee, they hanged Axinaaf vengefully for his Baalee deeds while Immiruu was sent to Rome. In this way, he ended before standing trial for the genocide. Therefore, the state that sent him owes an apology and compensation for the people of Buunnoo Baddallee.
Axinaaf Saggad’s deeds were so disgusting even for his men that one of them tried to run out of the tent in protest, but was gunned down by own relative’s snipers. That shows there were persons who believed in justice among them, too. Persons this writer heard from talking about this matter were Habashaa who were appalled by the massacre, even after three decades. Among those who were not around for the slaughter was a man called Qanyaach Meexxii. This writer heard that Meexxii stood against another man-eater and died fighting single-handedly. Had he not been an Oromo, his name would have appeared in school texts. Leaving that alone, the only son he would be remembered by, Yirguu Meexxii, a teacher at Raas Tasammaa School was said to have committed suicide. Other tribal leaders like brothers of the graceful Caaltuu Guutama were herded to Goree prison by the new colonizer again to deny indigenous leadership like the old colonizer before them. Since then, Baddallee lacked common leadership.
Issues raised above are to show that Baddallee is not only colonial deeds and “beer”. Baddallee has many more than those to be told. It is up to the youth to take up the challenge to expose the truth about her. The search for piece of information about Baddallee which the writer could not find from the internet had led to this brief article. He is giving what he knows in the hope of getting from others what more they know. Otherwise there are so many provinces and districts of Oromiyaa whose history had been muffled and neglected. If all get the attention it could help in self-realization. In particular this time that plundering of land and resources is exposing the people to dire poverty, hunger and disease requires especial attention.
From what was told, this could be around where the massacre took place in 1936/37 in Buunnoo Baddallee. This roundabout is at the junction of roads from Aggaaroo, Goree and Arjoo. There is a hardly visible memorial structure at the center, whose is it? Internet shows only this much expecting enrichment from those who know more.
Isaan irraa gara lixaatt kan jiran Gabbaa, Haannaa, Leeqaa fi Nooleen sirna dudhaa guutummaatt akka jara kanaa hin gaddhiisne. “Afran Oromoo” jedhamu turan. Buunnoon isaan keessatt argama. Murni lachanuu naannicha humna tokko jala galchuuf lola hedduu haa gaggeessan malee dubbii hubachuutt yoo ka’an nagaan tokkummaa uummachuu yaaluu eegalan. Garuu utuu hin xumuratin humni Habashaan Raas Tasammaa Naadon hogganamu gargar baasee gad ciruun tokko tokkoon of jala galche.
Magaalli Buunnoo guddoon, Baddallee jedhamti. Dur konyichi Buunnoo Baddalleen beekama ture. Seenaa, diinagdee, hawaaasoma magalaa kanaa irratt qormaati beekamaa amanamaan kan tolfame hin fakkaatu. Waabariin saa 1943 erga dhaabbatee beekota hedduu homishe. Garuu waa’ee Baddallee iyyaatiin barbaadamu dhibuun kan beekoti keessaa hin baane fakkeessa. Akka waan kolonoommii fi warshaan “biiraa” Dargiin eebbifamee banamee (1989?) isee uumee, waa’ee saanii qofatu ifee internet irratt mullata. Sunis tahee akkamitt meeqatu waa isaan irraa argatee, naannaan bu’aa maalii fidan kkf kan jedhu nutt thin hin himne? Kan iyyaatii Baddallee gara dabarsanii fi ukkamsan waan ukkaamsanii fi gara dabarsaniif qabu; beekoti see hundi isaanitt makamanii laata? Mirkanii ilaalcha malbulchaa irratt hin hundoofne dhihessuun isaan irraa eegama ture. Lammii kam irraayyuu haa tahanii “Ijoollee Baddallee!” jechuun saanii hin hafu.
Kanaaf barruun kun beekotii magaalattii bahan quwannoo gadi fagoo qorataaf dhiisanii waanuma dhagahaa fi argaa guddatanillee utuu barreesanii wanti iyya’amu kan darbaniif yaadannoo kan jiraniif iyya’aa tahuu dandaha. Biyyuma ofii keessatt seenaa wallaaluun halagaan keessumsiisaa, abbaan biyyaa keessumaa tahu hin qabu. Barreessaan kun akka kara deemaatt namoota haasa’an irraa waan dhagahe waan arge tokko tokko tuttuquu fedha. Sunis qorattoota fi kan caalaa beekan fulduratt bahanii magaalattii seena qabeettii kanan caalaa wal nubarsisinu laata jedhee abdachuunii. Kanaan duras moor saa “Prison of Conscience” keessatt wanti ka’anis jiru.
Barreessaan kun bara achiin darbee 1963/64 magaalichi ummataan “Baddallee Abbaa Wagaa” jedhama ture. Maqaan dhalootaa Abbaa Waggaa Firrisaa jedhama. Waggaan ilma saa angafaa. Horee saa kan tahan Galaayee Mangistuu Waggaa fi Birqee Waggaa jedhaman katkaalaa baasuun jireenya saanii deggeru turani. Tokko maqaaf “baalabbaataa”. Bara Baddalleen itt uumame hin barre garuu hedaan bara dhibbaa fi shantamaa as miti. Abbaan Waggaa ni bu’uurse moo ni beeksise laata? Handdhurri Baddallee jalqaba naannaa Odaa guddicha, booddana wabarii olhaanaan itt ijaaramee akka turetu himama. Odaan sun caffee naannaa ture jedhu. Erga Oromiyaan qabamtee sirni walabi diigamee garuu dame galma Abbaa Caffee kan galmisaa muummichi Suphee, Anniyoo Qarree akka tahe himamu tahe. Odicha jalatt wareega guddaatu gala ture. Abbaan Caffee Qaalluu Leeqaa sodaatamaa fi kabajamaa ture.
Wiirtuun Baddalleen si’anaa bakka karaan Aggaaroo, Goree fi Arjoo walitt bu’u. Dur karaa hundi kan bona irra oofamu qofa ture. Amma garuu bonaa ganna oofsisa. Riphaan rophilaanis ture. Telefoonnis jira. Booddana tajaajilli postaas jalqabameera. Jiraattoti magaalaa garri caalan namota alaati, Isaan keessaa Guraagee nagadaan jiraatanii fi Amaara mootummaa tajajilantu heddummaata. Suuqiiii garri caalu kan Arabootaa fi Guraagee ture. Baadiyyaan garu hundi Oromoo jechuun ni dandahama. Kolonummaan naannaa eenyummaa jiraatatota magaalaa irraa beeksisa. Barumsa sadarkaa sadaffaa kan qabu qondaala fayyaa yoo tahu itt haananii kan sadarkaa lammafaa bahan nursii, qondaala xurree qilleensaa fi barsiisota barumsa sadarkaa lammaffaa qabani.
Bara barreessaan kun achiin darbe Badddalleen gabaa Sanbat Duraa magaalaa walakkaa fi xinnaa Kamisaa yaatu karaa Jimma dhaqu duri irraa qabdi turte. Bittaa fi gurgurtaan afaan Oromoon gaggeeffama ture. Homishi naannaa gabaa keessatt argamu midhaan adda addaa, raafuu, muusii, loomii, burii, ancootee, dinnicha, goodarree, hudhaa, goosuu, qinxissaa, shonkooraa, dhadhaa, anqaaquu, indanqoo hoolaa fi horii qalmaa, meeshaa hooda faatu argama. Xaafii farasullaan tokko birrii lamaa fi walakkaa ture. Bittaa fi gurgurtaan kan qaban wal jijjiiruunis ni taha ture. Loomii digdammii santimii shan ture. Buna qotuu reef jalqabu. Xobbooti birrii sadii gogaan sees sanuma, indaanqoon santimii 25, anqaaqun birriin soddomaa ol ture. Wanti halle basha ture. Manooti daadhii damma qulqulluu hedduu turan. Mana bunaa jiran keessaa bakka ciisichaa kan qabu kan nama Mahaarii Barahee jedhamuu ture. Konkolaataas isaa fi bulchaa konyaa qofatu qaba. Farmaasiin tokkichi kan nama Baqqalaa Walda Sanbat jedhamuu ture. Geejiba biyya keessaaf nammi humna namaa fi horii kotte duudaatt dhimma baha. Baaabura daakkuu tokkitiitu ture.
Bara Xaaliyaaniin dhufte Oromoon naannaa jiran Abbaa Waggaa jalati gumaawaani koloneeffata dullacha gaggeessanii kan dhufuu akka itt simataniif qophaawaa turani jedhama. Ni lolu moo ni gabbaruu utuu hin murteeffatin hankaaffaman. Barri sun bara doonichoon Habashaa Raas Immiruu jedhamu Nugusan wakkala jedhee Goree qubatee. Raas, Achirraa faarri itt toluu didnaan biyyaa bahuuf karaa Sayyoo kaanaan Bure irratt Odaa Jooteen ittifame. Karaa Gimbii yaallaanis, Guyii irratt humni Konfedereeshin Oromoo Lixaa dhaabeeni. Humnaan yaallan moohamee lubbbuu baafachuuf gara Gojebtt gugate. Duran raayyaan saa bakka gahett Oromoo saamaa, ajjeesaa, dubartii arge jiffataa akka ture waan beekamuuf Gojebiin salphaatt hin geenye. Isa waliinis loltooti “Xiqur Anbassaa” jedhaman turan.
Bulchaan kolonii Gumaa, Axinaaf Saggad jedhamu adda Baaleett lola humna fashiti waliin tolfameen mo’amee gara bulcha saatt baqatee. Garuu achiis hamajaajii malee fira dhabe. Kanaaf Immiruutt makamuuf utuu baqatuu Baddalleett humni Oromoo Firrisaan hogganamu dhangaan simatee darbuu akka hin dandeenye itt hime. Axinaaf Saggad kan garaa garaa kaa’atee ol deebi’u diddaa malee fudhate. Utuu hin ka’in dhangaa nagaa dhaamsaaf Firrisaa fi gurgudoo Oromoo hunda afeere. Fulaan waaroo (dunkaanni) saa kan altokkoon nama tokko qofa seensisu ture. Kan dura jiru inni duubaa akka hin agarrett hidhannoo hiiksisaa ol galchu turan. Tokkichumaan waaroo guddichi sabboonota Oromoo qallii dhiiga dheebotteen marfameen xirribbaawe.
Axinaaf Saggad hooggana Oromo tokkollee of duubatt akka hin dhiisne murteeffatee jira. Erga hundi seenanii loltuu qophooftee yeroo kana eeggattu ajajee hunda fixe. Battaluma sana xaxachun lubbuu tufatee Buunnoo jalaa bahuun Immiruutt dabalame. Gojebitt Immiruu waliin cibraa Xaaliyaanii tokkott harka kennate. Garuu jarri Shaggariin gahanii Immiruu Roomaatt yoo dabarsan isa haaloo Baaleef fannisanii. Akkasitt fixaqaccee Baddallee irran gaheef utuu hin gaafatamin kute. Sababa kanaan lammiin al tokkoon masakoota dhabe, maatiin ijoollee haadha hiyyeessaa taate. Hardhas yoo tahe finnaan isa erge ummata Buunnoo Baddallee dhiifama gaafatee bakka buusaa baasuufii qaba.
Gochi Axinaaf Saggad kan seexa qabuuf jibbisiisaa waan tureef namoota saa keessaa tokko ittiin mormuun utaalee bahuu yaalee bifilee firoota saan ajjeefame jedhama. Nammi qajeeltuutt amanu isaan keessas ture jechuu dha. Namooti waa’ee kanaa barreessaan kun irraa dhagahe Habashoota turan. Kanneen gaafas achi hin turre keessaa nammi Qanyaach Meexxii jedhamu nama nyaataa biraa jala dhaabbachuun ofirraa facisaa wareegame jechunis ni himama. Oromoo ta’eef malee akka goota biyyaatti maqaan saa barnoota waabarii keessa gala ture. Sun hafee ilmi silaa ittiin yaadatamu barsiisaa Waabarii Raas Tasammaa kan ture, Yirguu Meexxiillee, akka of ajjeesetu himama. Hogganooti gosaa hafan hedduun kan akka obbolaa Caaltuu Guutamaa surra qabeettittii koloneeffataa haaraan Goreett guuraman. Ergasii Baddelleen hoggansa waloo dhabde.
Kun hundi kan ka’eef Baddalleen Waa’ee koloneeffataa fi “biiraa” qofa akka hin taane agarsiisuufii. Baddalleen sanneen caalaa kan himamu hedduu qabdii. Dargaggoon didhaa dhugaa baasuu ofirratt fudhatu jedhamee abdatama. Barreesichi Baddallee akka tasaa wayiif barbaadee internet irraa iyyaatii dhabuu saaf kaase malee konyootii fi qorooleen Oromiyaa kan seenaan ukkaanfamee jiru hedduu dha. Hundi hubannoo yoo argatan of bara gargaara. Keessaa immo barri samichi lafaa fi qabeenyaa, dhiitammi mirga ilmoo namaa ija baase ummata gadadoo deegaa, jeejee fi dhukkubatt saxilaa jiru kun xiyyeeffannoo addaa gaafata.
Kan himame irraa naannaa dhumisi itt tahe asi. Naannefati kun waltajjii karaa Aggaaroo, Goree fi Arjoo dhufaniiti. Gidduu saatt waanti siidaa yaadannoo fakkaatu gaalchaan hin mullane jira. Kan eenyuuti laata? Internet hanga sana qofa waan himuuf kan caalaa beekan akka gabbisaniif eeggataa.